Wooden Homes and Houses
Yes or No!
When used in the construction dried pieces of wood there are serious
problems. Warped roof extruded frame and not closing doors, swelling
of the lining of the walls, cracks in the floor, etc.
In terms of microstructure wood - a natural polymer composed of
fiber cells with tubular shape and direction of the tree trunk.
Because this tree has many advantages: high strength, elasticity
and low weight, low thermal conductivity, Natural decorative qualities,
ease of processing and installation. On the same disadvantages of
wood as a hygroscopic putrescibility flammability and successfully
fight modern remedies.
Oak bark and sawdust are used for impregnation of other tree species,
which alters their natural colors. For this piece wooden stand in
the decoction of a mixture of crushed bark and trunk of the oak,
sating their tannins. When choosing a method of finishing oak products
should be borne in mind that this tree is a bad spirit takes paints
and varnishes. The increased hardness of oak makes driving nails
into it and screwing.
Beech for strength and durability less than oak, but is more susceptible
to decay because of the high hygroscopicity. Therefore Beech products
can not be held in an environment with high humidity. This phenomenon
is called the breath of wood. The structure of beech stands with
its beauty and high decorative qualities. Especially in the tangential
and radial section. In the drying process takes place much faster
than other breeds, but cracks in this case appears to be much less.
Beech slightly pricked, cut and processed. Wood is well bent under
steam, but polished very difficult.
Wooden Houses - Wood
as Building Material
Ash wood texture similar to a small oak, but its color is brownish-yellow.
In the sapwood is clearly differentiated from its nucleus. Wood
ash is sufficiently solid and viscous, and therefore difficult process,
but set aside quite easy to bend. Small cracks on drying. Disadvantages
of ash may be due to decay.
Pine - wood is yellowish-red or pale yellow, such as high strength,
low volume weight and easy handling. In comparison with deciduous
species (eg, birch and oak) Pine is the softest material and less
susceptible to changes resulting from exposure to moisture. Over
time the wood becomes dark and core stands out sharply. When staining
pine can be seen uneven coverage by stations with different pitch
and porosity have different absorption paint.
Angarsk pine - sound rock resin passages. In the sapwood is yellowish-white
color, the nucleus from pink to brownish red. Annual rings are clearly
visible on all cuts and their number in the top 10-14 cm is equal
to pc. The transition from beginning to end, and sharp and the percentage
of late wood is 27%. Wood is medium density (540 kg / cubic M),
rather high strength and resistance to decay. Very good handling.
Stack height of 36-52 meters sbezhistost - 0,8%. Angara pine timber
is widely used in construction, construction, agriculture, furniture
and joinery, rail, bridge, - a ship - and a car.
Mahogany - under this name in the Russian market and sell different
breeds raznosemeynye of tropical trees that have a common color,
and partly the structure of the tree. They are easily worked, and
although quite different from soft wood, are very popular materials
windows - not so much because of its beauty, but because of the
considerable resistance to weathering and the ability to virtually
change the shape and size.
In freshly cut wood is red wood is yellow-reddish color, but over
time when exposed to air and light, darkness, gradually, brownish
red or purple-red color with a distinct bright and dark stripes.
Price and class of mahogany determined not mine, but the beauty
of its preparation of the fibers. Distinction mahogany smooth, striped,
patterned, fire, with marked in units, etc. To refer to all so-called
tree often used the term "mahogany" which should not be
confused with the term "meranti" refer to groups of tree
species, widespread in Southeast Asia.
A special breed - larch
Larch, one of the most common building materials deserves more detailed
description. Science has known for more than twenty varieties of
larch, growing in Russia. European larch grows in Central and Eastern
Europe, which is located in Switzerland, Austria, Germany and Poland.
However, chemical and physical-mechanical characteristics of their
significantly different in favor of Siberian larch. Below gives
details of Siberian larch. Compared with European larch Siberia
more durable and dense, medium density of 665 (620-725) kg / m³
m humidity 12%. Siberian larch is a very valuable timber. In addition
to the special strength and resilience to external shocks, characterized
by good color and structure. This variety of wood to great prospects.
Before that of larch is used mainly for production of bearings for
the mining industry, shipbuilding, etc., ie when this high humidity.
At present, its starting to appreciate how highly resistant timber
for the manufacture of floors, windows, staircases, furniture that
does not exclude, of course, its implementation and for landscaping
purposes. Depending on where the growth of larch trunks can vary
greatly in size. Usually its height is 30 to 40 meters in diameter
from 30 to 50 cm, although there are cases with a thickness in the
barrel more than 100 cm are trunks of larch are two important functions.
First, because it grows long, then it has formed a large fine. Secondly,
because of strong winds in the northern part of growing stems may
be significantly distorted. Characteristic of larch is that in winter
it drops its needles.
Larch wood is characterized by increased hardness. The color of
the kernel may change from yellow-brown to pink and pink-brown.
Annual rings clearly and clearly differ in color and texture. Residential
wood of larch quickly dies, so that the thickness of the sapwood
does not exceed 2-3 cm With age, dark wood, so the sooner annual
rings are darker than later.
Siberian larch is a very durable material. Its density depends
on humidity. When the natural moisture and density ranged from 900
to 1100 kg / cubic meter. m humidity of 12% and its density is about
665 kg / m³ m. Almost larch is one of the best resistance to weathering.
As seen from the long-term studies through a combination of density
and high gummosity, and specific composition of larch resin, it
is not only the first in its resistance to decay, but is twice its
sustainability oak, ash and pine. Everything else is practically
not affected by insect damage. Over time, larch gaining strength
Because of the high density of Siberian larch are highly susceptible
to distortion and cracking during drying. Drying requires considerably
more time than other conifers. In strict regime to get a positive
result. For most outdoor applications is enough to dry up humidity
17-19%. For internal use of content must be even lower (10-12%).
Although it is relatively difficult larch tree, is quite well prepared
high-quality instruments, in particular, lends itself to milling.
It can be glued, impregnated, not knock together with nails or screws,
to connect, but you must always remember to adjust the processing
techniques to account for characteristics associated with higher
tar and kolkostyu this material.
Prolonged exposure to water leads to a significant increase in
hardness of larch. During the construction of Venice, about 400
thousand pieces of larch pilots were killed on strengthening the
foundations of various structures. In 1827, ie. 1000-1400 years
later, the heap has been examined. At the end of their power is
said that a bunch of larch forests, which submerged part of the
city, as if petrified. Wood made before a company that ax, and saw
hardly take it.
Larch wood is used in small shipbuilding, construction, carpentry
industry. These are the elements of building designs, wall beams,
flooring, moldings, window frames, railway sleepers and poles of
power lines. Larch make pilots and other elements of hydraulic structures
that serve indefinitely. One example - Venice already mentioned
above. Another example - pile Trojan River bridge stood for in 1800.
In the Currently, the production technology of laminate veneer
lumber and furniture from larch. Larch wood laminate structures
can be combined with boron (under certain conditions). Olympic track
cycling track in Krylatskoye make larch. Larch wood in the form
of round wood and timber in the form of a constant market demand
in Western Europe. And the cost of larch wood in practice not subject
to seasonal fluctuations and remain consistently high.
Role of cedar (cut cedar) in human life, and surprisingly, the
wealth of its properties. Among the multitude of woody plants in
the middle belt of the country, especially in the northern part
of our country, Siberian cedar, holds a special place. It is hard
to find another such tree, which will contain the most positive
qualities. The healing properties of cedar proves popular scientific
literature as a serious and respected investigators, as academician
Pallas. Healing properties and has cedar beams. Beautiful texture,
nice pink color and attractive design, fine aroma ozdaravlivayuschy
and disinfection of airspace. Therefore, the interior of the house,
baths, saunas cedar wood is valuable not only for beautiful design
but also as a disinfectant, which has a beneficial effect on health
Scientists note that the rooms are upholstered cedar air is practically
sterile 200-300 bacterial cells 1 cubic meter m. At the same time,
it should be noted that according to medical standards, even for
the operating room may be 500-1000 m cubic non-pathogenic microorganisms.
Characteristics of different types of wood
Colorful tree bears coloring tannins present in its tissue. Predominant
tree species in warm colors (yellow, ocher, red, red-brown, brown),
but there are green, blue, purple and black forest. Yellow Wood
is of spruce, fir, linden, birch, aspen, beech, etc. All these breeds
differ in a wide range of colors (from white-yellow to yellow-red).
Brown color is inherent in the wood of cedar, poplar, beech, larch,
alder, pear, plum, etc.
However, even if you wait a year while house sit, it is still a
gap formed between the beams, cracks in the walls and eventually
will have to buy expensive pads to complete the house, inside and
out. Besides tapping and vrubki in the corners of the building made
by hand one way or another will be blown and sucked the moisture,
since ax is impossible to ensure accuracy.
All these problems are solved by means of glued profiled beam.
Laminated wood to support and protect the design utilizes a long
time. However, housing PDC appeared recently - in the West 25 years
ago. Log houses are in Germany, Austria, Finland, Czech Republic,
Sweden - a symbol of prestige and security of their hosts.
Glued laminated timber - the most current materials for wooden
house. The production process is as follows: register with natural
moisture content of sawn boards of small cross section, which are
easily dried to a moisture level of 10-12%. Then, these boards are
glued together (under pressure) with a special adhesive to the environment,
not affecting the air permeability of the wood, using only the highest
and first class after radiation control. Clay gets pressure deep
in the pore tree, thus ensuring a stable relationship.
The thickness of the timber depending on the number of connected
parts. Summer cottages sufficient width 100-150 mm for the home,
planned to live permanently, should the wall thickness of more than
200 mm. Channels and ridges of the length of the rod is rigidly
fixed to the wall. The wall looks like a solid, does not require
additional finishing and insulation. Beams laminated wood does not
change shape during surgery, it has very low shrinkage (2-3 times
lower than, for example, diaries), it does not crack and offers
great opportunities for design and construction.
Thickness of 200 mm from the bar provide comfortable insulation
of the premises, at a temperature of-35C to +40 C. Glued bar - reliable
and durable building materials, preserving all the best properties
of wood. In this case, it is practically not affected by climatic
influences. When production of wood slats used only radial cut from
pine northern breeds, and they are glued together so that the annual
rings are arranged in different directions. This relieves tension
and reduce the seasonal strain and cracking. Number of blades -
from 3 to 6.
The most famous example of the use of laminated veneer lumber - Manege
building restoration project. Overlap Manege start sinking within
a few years after construction and in 1930 were set intermediate poles
support, which are also required replacement. During construction
playpen used log length of 12 meters, this is the natural length of
the tree, so they had a lot of fasteners. Each of these connector
allow a weakening of the overall design.
Modern technology of laminated timber allows the entire length
of 45 m elements necessary for an arena floor. Difficulties arise
only to transport items from the factory, so fundamental in restoring
the building of the arena to use laminated average length of about
24 meters. Reducing the number of fasteners will significantly increase
the strength and structural stability - there is hope that the new
beams Arena will serve at least 50 years.
Another example of unique application glued wooden structures serve
as a bridge at km 106 Ring Road. The hotel, built in 1998, cable-stayed
bridge has become a breakthrough for its time - before the wooden
structures in tension has not been done. The construction of the
bridge is technology used to connect timber tension with equally
strong seam method Stanislav Borisovich Turka - the development
of our laboratory. According to this technology bonded structures
are built of wood in the world.
Smaller facilities, construction of which use the technology laminated
veneer lumber - such as to store chemicals street in Moscow Suzdal.
Underlying structures - two huge arches of laminated wood, each
20 meters, they are linked at the top of the pad length and a few
The same technology creates arch potassium chloride stock sea port
of St. Petersburg - the largest European construction of glued wooden
structures: area - 63 meters, height of the crest - 45 m, length
- 300 meters. Those arches joints are stronger than the wood they
are made with glued rods and metal plates.
During the construction phase is in the atrium MGIMO. MGIMO building
is constructed in such a way as to form a closed patio that has
decided to close the glass roof on wooden beams. The project - rays
of different lengths and curved beams, situated in various planes.
This building promises to be very beautiful.
Recently built and indoor skating center in Krylatskoe. The main
supporting structure of the center - a metal wood truss period of
about 50 meters: the upper belt is made of plywood, the bottom belt
and metal bars. Externally, this design is very original and unusual
- the main support beam shrouds connected to the legs.
Thus, 30-year-old technology of glued wooden structures still remains
up to date, allowing you to create elegant and unique form to build
beautiful and durable building, whether it is a large industrial
facility or a small private houses. Incidentally, the recommended
thickness of the walls in your home for permanent residence - more
than 150 mm.